Date of Award


Document Type

Thesis - Open Access

First Advisor

Denisha Jones

Second Advisor

Patricia Virella

Third Advisor

Jerusha Beckerman


In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that public education is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. Despite the ruling, the American education system is still not equitable for all students. Children of color (Black, Latino, Native Americans) or of lower income are more likely to jump over several hurdles to get to the finish line. Meanwhile, white and wealthy children will cross the finish line without going through a single hurdle. The hurdles begin at early childhood and the final hurdle is college graduation. Some of these disparities include racial bias, the burden of poverty, funding differences, and school discipline. As teachers, we must find innovative solutions to ensure that students receive the customized services they need to be successful in their learning goal, which supports their lifelong careers and success